1 Execution site(s)
Yukhym G., born in 1930: “Y. U. : How could you understand that the Jews who lived in houses were richer? Did they have different clothes?
Witness : It was clear that they were more well-nourished, some of them were professors. They exchanged silver and gilded forks for food, cereal, flour.
Y. U. : Did they come to you to change something for food?
Witness : Yes, they went in every house. Aron and Leiba, two brothers, used to come here from Dubyna.
Y. U. : Did they come to your house ?
Witness : Of course they did, they came to every house. For example, the tinsmith offered to make a bucket. But the Jews from Bukovina didn’t speak well Ukrainian. They asked if we needed to tinker a kettle or a pot. There were more tailors, one woman stayed with us about two weeks, she sewed everything manually and the fabric was terribly rough, so it was hard to work with. She arrived with a boy, I don’t know whether he was her son or grandson, his name was Vitia.
Y. U. : Did they stay for a night or did they return every time to sovkhoz ?
Witness : They returned to sovkhoz. They celebrated their holidays, for example, the Sabbath, and in spring Jewish kuchky, they lit candles, there was the women’s choir, they prayed.” (Witness n°2690U, interviewed in Demydivka, on October 29, 2019)
Dubyna is located 150km (93mi) southeast of Vinnytsia; Dubyna was home to Ukrainians; no Jews lived in the village before the war. There were several kolkhozes [collective farms] in the area. Agriculture was the main occupation. The Jews lived in the nearby towns of Bershad and Obodivka, located about 20km and 14km away.
Dubyna was occupied by German and Romanian forces in the end of July 1941. The village remained under the Romanians and became part of Transnistria in September 1941. Even though the village wasn’t mentioned in the archives, from the field research with the help of the local witness, Yahad-In Unum managed to establish that a temporary ghetto, or camp, for the Jewish refugees was created here under the occupation. In late fall of 1941, about a hundred of Jews - men, women, and children among them- were brought from Bessarabia and Bukovina and placed in the stables that belonged to the collective farm. They worked in exchange for food and a place to sleep. Many of them survived thanks to that. Those who died, the exact number was impossible to establish, were buried in the pit located in the field close to the forest. Today, there is a memorial.
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