1 Execution site(s)
Maria P., born in 1933: “One day, at the beginning of the war, I was on my way to school with some friends of mine. While walking on the road we saw two policemen leading two Jews away. These Jewish men were killed on the bridge near the school because they resisted. The bodies were left on the road. I don’t remember who buried them or what happened to them afterwards.” (Testimony n°3010U, interviewed in Sudova Vyshnia, on December 1st, 2021)
Sudova Vyshnia is located on the banks of the Vishnya river about 50 km (31 mi) west of Lviv. Until the 1772 Partitions of Poland, Sudova Vyshnia, officially called Sądowa Wisznia, and was part of Przemyśl Land, Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1772, the town was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, as part of Habsburg Austrian Galicia, where it remained until late 1918. During the Second Polish Republic, Sądowa Wisznia belonged to Mościska County, Lwów Voivodeship. In September 1939 the town was taken over by the Soviet Union. The first records of the Jewish community date back to the mid-16th century. In 1880, 1,100 Jews lived in the town, making up 28% of the total population. At the end of the 19th century, their number increased to 1,300 comprising 30% of the population. In 1921, however, the Jewish community dropped to 1,039 people (ca. 25%), which was due to the intensification of migration and a dangerously antisemitic environment. Due to the presence of the railway line leading to Kraków and Silesia in Poland that passed by the town, it had become an important trade center. The majority of Jews made their living in the oil and coal trade industries. Some Jews owned inns, taverns and shops, while others were craftsmen. The community had a synagogue, a Jewish cemetery and a mikvah (a ritual bath). Under the Soviet administration, in September 1939, all private oil businesses were nationalized, as well as the Jewish stores. Craftsmen were forced into cooperatives, and all religious and cultural movements were banned. On the eve of the war, circa. 900 Jews remained in the town.
Sudova Vyshnia was occupied by German troops on June 26,, 1941. As part of historical region of Galicia, the town became part of the General Government. The Jewish community of Sudova Vyshnia was annihilated over the course of three main murder Aktions. The first one was carried out on April 15, 1942, when about 450 Jews were rounded up at their homes and deported to the Ianovski camp (Janowska camp) located on the outskirts of Lviv. Most Jews deported during the second operation that took place in October 1942 were also taken to the Ianovski camp, while others were sent to the Belzec extermination camp. At the beginning of December 1942, the last Jews remaining in the town were displaced to the ghetto in Yavoriv, created on 10 November 1942. According to one eyewitness,dozens of Jews who attempted to escape, or were too weak to be displaced, were shot on the spot during the round-ups. Jews from other villages such as Husakiv, Yaniv, Krakovets, Krukenychi and Mostyska were also interned in the Yavoriv ghetto. The ghetto was located in the southern part of the town and was fenced-in with barbed wire. After the deportation operation, the number of prisoners increased to ca. 6,000. On 16 April 1943, the Yavoriv ghetto was liquidated. During the liquidation, almost the entirety of the remaining Jews were murdered on the spot, in Yavoriv.
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