Lipen (former Kholui) | Mogilev

/ Pavel Ch., born in 1925: “We saw the Jews being escorted to the bridge. The column stopped there. Two policemen stood on the both sides and the third one kicked the Jews in the back.” ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The Yahad team during an interview with a witness in Lipen. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Yanina Ch., born in 1934, told Yahad about the shooting of Jews in Lipen. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum A witness showed the Yahad the photo of Lipen from her photo album. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum A Jewish house in Lipen. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum A Jewish house in Lipen. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Pavel Ch., born in 1925, described the execution of Jews he witnessed. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The road down which the Jews were led away to the execution. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The execution site of 207 Jews in Lipen. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The monument in memory of Jews in Lipen. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum

Executions of Jews in Lipen

1 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before :
Close to the river
Memorials :
Yes
Period of occupation:
1941-1944
Number of victims :
216

Witness interview

Yanina Ch., born in 1934: “My cousin was married to a Jew. They had two children. His wife was killed along with their children, even though their father was Russian. They were killed at the bridge and thrown into the river along with some other Jews. My mother told me about it afterwards.” (Testimony N°685, interviewed in Osipovichi on July 17, 2013).

Historical note

Lipen (formerly known as Kholui) is located 150km southwest of Mogilev. The first record of the Jewish community dates back to the late 18th century. The majority of Jews worked in the lumber business or agriculture. There were also artisans and merchants who held seven grocery shops and one tobacco store. An agricultural cooperative was established in 1930s. There was a synagogue. The Zionist movement was rather strong and operated in Lipen until it was banned. According to the 1926 census, 441 Jews lived in Lipen, comprising 58 per cent of the total population. The village was occupied by the Germans on June 30, 1941, one week after the war had broken out.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

Immediately after the German arrival, all Jews were registered and marked with yellow Stars of David. They were subjected to forced labor and a ghetto was created rather quickly. It was established in August 1941 and only existed for two months. It was composed of a few houses in the area close to the bank of the Svisloch River. According to a local witnesses, it was fenced in and guarded by local policemen. 

There were two anti-Jewish Aktions carried out by members of Einsatzgruppe B, the Security Police, and the SD, who were assisted by local policemen. One was conducted in August 1941 when a number of Jews were taken to the bridge over the Svisloch river and shot by three policemen. The majority of Jews were killed in October 1941. Although some sources say that the Jews were shot, field research revealed that the remaining 200 Jews were burned alive in the school building. 

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