Andrushivka (Andrushovka, Andruszowka) | Zhytomyr

/ Varvara Z., born in 1932: “My mother said to me: ‘Look, Varia, there is a truck and people are coming.” ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum Maria M., born in 1930 “All the Jews were registered and marked with armbands. I don’t remember which color they were but they did have distinguishing badges.” ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum Andriy K., born in 1934. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum Some of the remaining tombstones at the Jewish cemetery in Andrushivka. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum Some of the remaining tombstones at the Jewish cemetery in Andrushivka. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The place where the Jews were gathered before being taken to the execution site. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The former police station during WWII. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum Yahad’s team during an interview with Andriy K., born in 1934. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The execution site of Jewish women and children murdered in August 1941. Execution site n°1.  ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The lists of victims murdered at this site by the Nazi. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum A drone view at the execution site located by the road, in the forest. Execution site n°1. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The execution site with several mass graves located behind the hospital. At this place Jews, communists and local activists were murdered.©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The execution site with several mass graves located behind the hospital. At this site Jews, communists and local activists were murdered. Execution site n°2. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum The former location of the ghetto created shortly after the Germans arrival. The ghetto was located next to the peatlands. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad – In Unum

Execution of Jews in Andrushivka

2 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before :
Forest (1); Forest behind the hospital (2)
Memorials :
Yes
Period of occupation:
1941-1943
Number of victims :
About 475

Witness interview

Pavel Z.: "All the Jews were shot together. There were children, women and men. They were shot in the Krasna Gorka forest, which was not that big at the time. There is a monument there today.“ (Witness N°259, interviewed in Andrushivka in October 2005)

Soviet archives

"As soon as they entered Andrushivka, the Germans began to select and round up the Jews, without taking into account their age, young or old. They loaded them into a truck and took them to the place called "Bald Mountain" (‘Lyssa hora’) to be shot. My two children, my 13-year-old daughter Rima and my 20-year-old daughter Rakhil, were shot there, as well as my husband, my father and my mother, my two brothers with their families and my three sisters. My mother’s brother’s family was also shot. In total, 37 members of my family were shot. I hid with one of my daughters and managed to save myself. In total, the Germans and their accomplices shot about 400 people, Jews and Ukrainians, women, children and elderly people." [From the testimony of a Jewish survivor, Maria Blaivas, daughter of Leib, given to the State Soviet Extraordinary Commission in April 1945; GARF 7021-60-281, pp. 21-23].

Historical note

Andrushivka is located 47km (29mi) southeast of Zhytomyr. The first records go back to the end of 18th century. In 1793, Andrusivka was annexed by the Russian Empire. In 1859, Andrushivka was given town status. The Jewish community was rather small and represented only 10% of the total population. In 1911, 2,359 people lived in Andrushivka, with the Jews only representing a small percentage. The majority of Jews were either merchants or worked in small industries, such as the sugar factory, the distillery, or at the mills. Many Jews were artisans. The community had a synagogue and a cemetery that remains to this day.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

Adrushivka was occupied by the Germans on July 10, 1941. By that time, some Jews had managed to evacuate, or, in the case of some young men, were enrolled in the Red Army. Immediately after the Germans’ arrival, all the Jews were registered, forced to wear distinguishing signs and forced to perform different kinds of labor, such as cleaning and farm work, but they continued living in their houses until the creation of the ghetto in the second half of August 1941. Before all the Jews were confined to the ghetto, on August 19, 252 Jews were rounded up and shot in the forest. The execution was carried out by the Germans assisted by local police. The ghetto was liquidated in late April 1942. As a result, 250 Jews were murdered in a pit behind the town’s hospital. Alongside the Jews, some local activists and communists were shot at that site, but in a separate mass grave. Several Jewish skilled workers were the only ones left and were sent to the camp in Berdychiv, where they were killed shortly thereafter, in July 1942.

For more information about killings in Berdychiv, please refer to the corresponding profil

Jewishgen

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